Standard Large Generator Interconnection Agreement

Large central photovoltaic installations have a complex internal configuration and it is not possible or necessary to present each component as part of interconnection studies. The WECC guide recommends modeling large photovoltaic installations into machine equivalent. Quote from the WECC guide: “In this model, the equivalent generator represents the total production capacity of all inverters, the equivalent mounted pad transformer represents the total effect of all step-up transformers, and the equivalent collector branch represents the aggregate effect of the PV installation collector installation. With the right parameters of the model, this model should bring the load characteristics of the photovoltaic installations at the junction, the real and reactive collector system and the voltage profile at the “medium” inverter of the photovoltaic installation. An important observation is that the data requirements of the pro-forma LGIP and LGIA were intended for conventional generators. Another data set is required for photovoltaic installations. Appendix A of the wecc guide contains an example of a demand for data on photovoltaic installations, which is more appropriate for the representation of the power flows of photovoltaic installations. It is recommended that this type of information be used to supplement the request for data in the pro forma LGIP. The interconnection process requires sufficient simulations and analysis to determine the impact of the proposed project and identify mitigation alternatives. Traditionally, three types of analyses are performed to study the performance of the mass feeding system.

They are: these studies present the proposed project at the same time as the rest of the transport network and its generators, loads, transformers and other electrical appliances. Project models and other data must be provided in a format that transmission providers can integrate into their simulation platforms. Although a large number of electricity flow simulation and dynamic simulation tools are available, most transmission providers in the United States use programs for positive sequential load flow (PSLF) and power system simulation for engineering (PSSE) for electrical and dynamic flow simulations. To date, there has been a lot of work to understand the data requirements for wind generators on the installation, but little for photovoltaic installations. Recently, the Renewable Energy Modeling Task Force (REMTF) of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) expanded its scope to address photovoltaic modeling issues. A good resource for modeling an REMTF document entitled WECC Guide for Representation of Photovoltaic Systems in Large-Scale Load Flow Simulations. FERC expected that the current PPA procedure would support competitive markets. However, this process has been overwhelmed by a large number of potential next-generation projects, particularly renewable energy projects, which are seeking networking in important areas of energy resources that require significant transmission improvements. The facility study agreement is included in Schedule 4 of the LGIP and must be signed and returned to the transportation provider, with a higher value of $100,000 or a monthly estimate of the costs of carrying out the facility study. The purpose of the facility study is to specify and estimate the cost of the equipment, technology and construction work required to connect the proposed facility.

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